By John Clarke (auth.), Harold Weinstock (eds.)
This publication, in essence the court cases of a NATO complex examine Institute with a similar name, is designed to supply in-depth insurance of many, yet now not all, of the foremost present purposes of superconductivity, and of many who nonetheless are being constructed. it is going to be of worth to scientists and engineers who've pursuits within the examine and construction points of the know-how, in addition to within the functions themselves. The ftrst 3 chapters (by Clarke, Vrba and Wikswo) are dedicated to an figuring out of the rules, fabrication and makes use of of SQUID magnetometers and gradiometers, with the best emphasis on biomagnetism and nondestructive overview (NDE). For the main half, conventional low-temperature superconductor (LTS) SQUIDs are used, yet quite for NDE, high-temperature superconductor (HTS) SQUIDs are proving priceless and sometimes less difficult. The succeeding 3 chapters (by Przybysz, Likharev and Chaloupka) disguise broader points of superconducting electronics. The ftrst of those deal basically with electronic L TS circuits, whereas the 3rd discusses in nice aspect passive part functions utilizing HTS fabrics. presently, HTS ftlters are present process extreme J3-site checking out at cellular phone base stations. whereas it's transparent that HTS ftlters outperform traditional ftlters in lowering sign loss and taking into account extra channels in a given bandwidth, it is not but sure that the cellular phone sees adequate monetary beneftts to make a ftrm selection to exploit HTS ftlters universally in its platforms. If this software is mostly tailored, the marketplace for those ftlters could be particularly large.
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Extra info for Applications of Superconductivity
Chesca shows that optimal performance for the nonhysteretic rf SQUID is found for f3L = 1 if I' < 1 and f3L = 1II' if I' > 1. As an example, for T =77 K, I' =f3L = 1, and R = 1 Q one finds L =(I' f3L)L th z 100 pH and E Z 3 X 10-31 JHz-I. We note that the larger values of I' possible for the rf SQUID than for the dc SQUID enable one to operate the former device at 77 K with larger values of L than is possible for the latter. This advantage translates into larger area SQUID washers and thus higher sensitivity to magnetic field for a given flux noise.
With T = 300 K, L = 4 Jlm and d = 1 Jlm, we find 'to ::::: 17 sec. Thus, the observed spectrum is in very reasonable agreement with predictions. We are currently studying the motion of live bacteria, which is substantially more complicated. For example, the spectrum differs substantially from a Lorentzian, and contains peaks at about 25 Hz and 70 Hz that arise from two distinct precessional modes of the swimming bacteria. Weare also investigating the effects of magnetic fields and magnetic field gradients on the motion.
The flux noise is typically 2 /l(J)oHz-1I2, and the frequency response is O-S MHz. The spectrometer is controlled by the computer. The excitation pulse consists of a sinusoidal signal, typically 1 mT peak-to-peak, containing between 1 and 30 cycles. After the pulse is removed, the precessing nuclei induce a flux in the flux transformer which is detected by the SQUID. The excitation pulse is generally large enough to saturate the integrator in the flux-locked loop, and to avoid a long recovery time one shorts the capacitor during the pulse and opens this switch after the pulse is turned off.
Applications of Superconductivity by John Clarke (auth.), Harold Weinstock (eds.)