By Howell G M Edwards; Peter Vandenabeele
Content material: advent; half I. ANALYTICAL tools: advent; tools of Visualisation; Vibrational spectroscopy; X-Ray equipment; Nuclear concepts; equipment of separation; Mass spectrometry; Electrochemical innovations; half II. fabrics: Ceramics and enamels; Glass; Stone; Gemstones/minerals; Obsidian; Pigments and dyes; Icons and work; Metals / corrosion; Biomaterials; Resins, bitumens, tar, coal; Ivory and bones; wooden; Textiles; modern fabrics; half III: QUESTIONS: identity; Authentication; expertise of creation; Provenancing; courting; Degradation and conservation; nutritional reconstruction; precis; Index
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Extra resources for Analytical Archaeometry
58,76 Moreover, because NIR radiation features longer wavelengths than visible light, the waves are less refracted and focus to another point which lies behind the visible focal plane. To counteract this, the lens has to be focused on an object that is closer than the actual object, a process known as short focusing. This explains why many pro and/or older lenses have a red dot/line/letter ‘‘R’’ indicating the NIR focus offset when focused at infinity. Newer lenses seldom display such a supplementary focusing index.
12 27 Overview of some non-invasive optical imaging methods described in this chapter. Since NUV, visible and NIR-induced fluorescence can be imaged in the visible or NIR domain, conventional imaging equipment for direct photography can be used. One must only verify that neither the anti-reflection 28 Chapter 1 coatings of the lens nor the barrier filter itself fluoresce. Evidently, the exposure determination for any kind of fluorescence must be done by trialand-error. 103 The best known examples are the pieces of clothing with brightening agents that start to fluoresce white when walking along the ‘‘black lights’’ of a disco.
Fluorescence is a specific type of photoluminescence: a general term for the spontaneous emission of new radiation by an object after absorbing photons. All luminescence phenomena described here are called fluorescence or immediate luminescence, as the emission occurs immediately after absorption the higher energy optical radiation. Delayed emission is called phosphorescence. As can be seen in the glow-in-the-dark toys, phosphorescence slowly fades out within seconds or up to a few hours. 98 In general, three types of fluorescence photography exist: UV-induced, visible-induced and NIR-induced fluorescence.
Analytical Archaeometry by Howell G M Edwards; Peter Vandenabeele