By Jeffrey Scott Vitter
Facts units in huge purposes are frequently too large to slot thoroughly contained in the computer's inner reminiscence. The ensuing input/output conversation (or I/O) among quick inner reminiscence and slower exterior reminiscence (such as disks) could be a significant functionality bottleneck. Algorithms and information buildings for exterior reminiscence surveys the cutting-edge within the layout and research of exterior reminiscence (or EM) algorithms and knowledge constructions, the place the target is to use locality and parallelism on the way to lessen the I/O expenditures. various EM paradigms are thought of for fixing batched and on-line difficulties successfully in exterior reminiscence. Algorithms and knowledge constructions for exterior reminiscence describes numerous invaluable paradigms for the layout and implementation of effective EM algorithms and information buildings. the matter domain names thought of contain sorting, permuting, FFT, clinical computing, computational geometry, graphs, databases, geographic info structures, and textual content and string processing. Algorithms and knowledge buildings for exterior reminiscence is a useful reference for anyone attracted to, or carrying out study within the layout, research, and implementation of algorithms and knowledge buildings.
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Extra resources for Algorithms and Data Structures for External Memory
42] describe a single-disk merge sort algorithm for the problem of duplicate removal, in which there are a total of K distinct items among the N items. When duplicates get grouped together during a merge, they are replaced by a single copy of the item and a count of the occurrences. The algorithm runs in O n max 1, logm (K/B) I/Os, which is optimal in the comparison model. The algorithm can be used to sort the ﬁle, assuming that a group of equal items can be represented by a single item and a count.
The ﬁle of items being partitioned is itself one of the buckets formed in the previous level of recursion. In order to read that ﬁle eﬃciently, its blocks must be spread uniformly among the disks, so that no one disk is a bottleneck. In summary, the challenge in distribution sort is to output the blocks of the buckets to the disks in an online manner and achieve a global load balance by the end of the partitioning, so that the bucket can be input eﬃciently during the next level of the recursion.
The schedule uses T = 8 I/O steps, which is optimum. priority order from optimal lazy schedule: a b f c i d e l g o j h p k q m n r 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 input step 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 f i l g h n buffer pool e o p q r a b c d j k m Fig. 6. 6. The prefetch schedule remains optimum with T = 8 I/O steps, but some of the blocks are input earlier than in the lazy schedule. 354 External Sorting and Related Problems To get an idea of how good optimum is, suppose that Σ is composed of S subsequences interlaced arbitrarily and that each of the S subsequences is striped in some manner on the disks.
Algorithms and Data Structures for External Memory by Jeffrey Scott Vitter