By V.A. Lefebvre
In this e-book moral platforms are defined within the language of arithmetic. generally arithmetic is believed to be a technological know-how of volume. certainly, manipulation of amounts constitutes a lot of arithmetic. simple utilized arithmetic offers with reckoning and dimension, the place concrete amounts are items of recognition, similar to counting sheep or weighing corno however the operations on those amounts are played with assistance from symbols, from which concrete referents were 'abstracted out': three + five = eight whether the symbols stand for numbers of sheep or a whole bunch corno hence, the 1st precept that shows the facility of arithmetic is abstraction. it's one ofthe 3 pillars on which the edifice of arithmetic rests. one other pillar is precision. in general, guy communicates via phrases. W ords serve verbal exchange to the level that they seek advice from issues, occasions, states of affairs, emotions of the speaker, and so forth. those are the meanings attributed to phrases. verbal exchange is winning to the level that the meanings coded upon phrases through the speaker correspond to the meanings decoded by way of the hearer. As is weH identified, the measure ofthis correspondence varies tremendously in numerous contexts of discourse and with the again grounds or attitudes of the audio system and hearers. arithmetic is a language during which the meanings ofthe symbols (the 'words' ofthis language) are totally detailed. This precision is accomplished via abstraction. summary phrases are outlined through their family to different phrases and by way of not anything else.
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Additional info for Algebra of Conscience: A Comparative Analysis of Western and Soviet Ethical Systems
Thus, we can understand the psychological mechanism of inner motivation behind an individual's choice of relationship with his partner. The structure of moral cognition is, apparently, universal and does not depend on a given culture. However, there is one degree offreedom which allows the existence of two types of morality. This degree of freedom is connected with the possibility of evaluating the compromise between good and evil, either as evil or as good (and correspondingly the confrontation of good and evil can be evaluated either as good or as evil).
Axioms (3) (4) reflect the assumption that 'by itself good does not turn into evil; neither does evil turn into good. Axiom (5) uses one of four possible equations of formal implication. 1 = 1 1--+0 = 0 good aware of evil remains good; good aware of good remains good; evil aware of good remains evil. Axioms (3) and (4), as wen as (6), (7), and (8), cannot be verified by 0 bvious empirical observations or experiments, but they do not contradict our intuition. The reason for choosing these particular axioms lies in the 'logic of consequences' and cannot be given before the corresponding analysis.
4) from that of structures aa+b and aa. In the latter structures an individual also does not doubt. But doubts cannot appear, because the individuals do not have elements of the third tier, the correctness of which they may doubt. This being the case, let us agree that when we speak of the absence of doubts, we assume that in the structure there are elements the correctness ofwhich an individual does not doubt. Which individual has a higher ethical status: a doubting or non-doubting one? 5) sees the 'real' relationshi ps between himself and his partner as a .
Algebra of Conscience: A Comparative Analysis of Western and Soviet Ethical Systems by V.A. Lefebvre