By Abdulrahman Yarali
From the transition of analog to electronic conversation besides seamless mobility and excessive computing energy of small hand-held units, the instant communications has obvious super alterations resulting in the combination of numerous telecommunication networks, units and companies over final 30 years. the speed of this development and development has elevated relatively long ago decade simply because humans not use their units and networks for voice merely, yet call for package deal contents equivalent to facts download/streaming, HDTV, HD video , 3D video conferencing with greater potency, seamless connectivity, intelligence, reliability and higher person event. even if the demanding situations dealing with provider services and telecommunication businesses range by way of product, zone, marketplace dimension, and their components of focus yet time to industry, effective usage in their resources and profit growth, have impacted considerably how you can deal with and behavior their enterprise whereas conserving enough margin.
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Additional resources for 4G & Beyond. The Convergence of Networks, Devices, and Services
The following three phases. The first phase is related with link-layer network discovery in a technologydependent way for horizontal handovers  or technology-agnostic way for vertical handovers . The second phase is selection of the more suitable access network/Network Attachment Point (NAP) . The third phase is about predicting handoffs  to enhance the handover/handoff management in currently deployed mobile networks . The current standardization bodies are very focused in seamless heterogeneous handoffs [4, 65].
Below is a possible transition path for an operator starting with their 2G (GSM, CDMA) network . • • • For 2G offloading, network selection is done by a client application, and the IP traffic is routed through the wireline and direct connection to internet, coupled with common authentication architecture. Offloading network selection for 3G with small cell is done by the wireless core, and the mobile equipment opens a tunnel from the device to the dedicated Interworking WiFi server in the operator’s core network to establish an access for the user to the operator’s wireless macro services or to a gateway to the Internet, coupled with a common authentication procedure.
22] Yarali, K. Saleeba, “ Unlicensed Mobile Access: Leading technological Alternative in the Fixed-Mobile Convergence Stable,” CTRQ, Third International Conference on Communication theory, Reliability and Quality of Services, Athens, Greece, 2010.  H. Eslambolchi, “Wireless Spectrum Needs vs. com/pulse/article/20131029224228-5213223-wireless-spectrumneeds-vs-wi-fi-offload-solutions.  James Seymour, Senior Director,Alcatel-Lucent, 4G America  Monica Paolini, “The economics of small cells and Wi-Fi offload,” SenzaFilli, Consulting.
4G & Beyond. The Convergence of Networks, Devices, and Services by Abdulrahman Yarali